"[16], Lukacs and Hemphill suggest an initial local development of Mehrgarh, with a continuity in cultural development but a change in population. Traces of agriculturists and herders were accessible through hints of pottery, pit houses, painting, canvases and day by day life.) Name some important sites where archaeologists have found evidence of farmers and herders. Archeologists have found lanes of wild animals form lower level of Mehrgarh and bones of domestic animals from the upper level. Around 12,000 years ago, the world had started becoming warmer. Q5: Name One of the important occupations taken up by the tribes of Middle Stone Age. They have found remains of houses here. Located in a fertile plain, near the Bolan Pass. Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. Stone tools have been found from many sites as well. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. J World Prehistory 20: 1–86, Jarrige C (2008) The figurines of the first farmers at Mehrgarh and their offshoots. Chirand is a site in Bihar.. iv. the beginning of Period I, it can be rather securely assessed that the first occupation of Mehrgarh has to be put in a context probably earlier than 7000 BC. But given the originality of Mehrgarh, Jarrige concludes that Mehrgarh has an earlier local background," and is not a "'backwater' of the Neolithic culture of the Near East. 32. Around 12,000 years ago, there were major changes in the climate of the world, with a shift to relatively warm conditions. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather; people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. Genetic research shows a complex pattern of human migrations. Answer- (a) Explanation – Map Skills. The dead person was buried with goats that were supposed to serve as meat in the next world. When people died, their relatives and friends generally paid respect to them. Pragdhara 18: 136–154, Costantini L (2008) The first farmers in Western Pakistan: the evidence of the Neolithic agropastoral settlement of Mehrgarh. 2. One may also ask, what tribes lived in pit houses? [41] The characteristic female figurines appear beginning in Period IV and the finds show more intricate designs and sophistication. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected. Ans : Mehrgarh "[35] Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation. Mehrgarh was probably one of the places where people learnt to grow barley and wheat, and rear sheep and goats for the first time in this area. Burzahom in Srinagar, Kashmir is a site where many pit-houses have been found. 30. [54], Metal finds have dated as early as Period IIB, with a few copper items. Several burial sites have also been found in Mehrgarh. [39], In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of nine men from Mehrgarh made the discovery that the people of this civilization had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Iranica Antiqua XXXVII: 113–149, Kuzmina EE, Mair VH (2008) The Prehistory of the Silk Road. 19 square6 present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. [43], There are two types of burials in the Mehrgarh site. Answer: Pit-houses were built by people by digging into the ground, with steps leading into them. a pit-house is frequently called a sunken featured building and occasionally (grub-)hut or grubhouse, after the German name Grubenhaus. Harris DR (2010) Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia: An Environmental-Archaeological Study. Mammoth bone dwelling The oldest pit dwellings were discovered in Mezhyrich, Central Ukraine. People learnt to grow barley and wheat for the first time iii. Square or rectangular houses were found iv. What are tribes? In Koldihwa, rice and fragmentary animal bones found. The pits were generally broad at the base and narrow near the opening. Pragdhara 18: 167–178, Fuller DQ (2006) Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis. Milk and meat comes from animals that are reared.. v. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest villages.. Q2. Aldershot: Ashgate. Archaeologists have found traces of huts or houses at some sites. Glazed faience beads were produced and terracotta figurines became more detailed. [47], The oldest ceramic figurines in South Asia were found at Mehrgarh. Gallego romero et al. (vii) Many burial sites were found in Mehrgarh. Hiebert FT, Dyson RH (2002) Prehistoric Nishapur and frontier between Central Asia and Iran. Pragdhara 18: 155–166. i. Jadeite, found in Daojali Hading, may have been brought from China. Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into eight periods. 1. Most houses were square or rectangular. People looked after them, perhaps in the belief that there is some form of life after death. Pipal leaf designs are used in decoration from Period VI. The amulet was made from unalloyed copper, an unusual innovation that was later abandoned. Its excavators have proposed the following chronology: present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Dolukhanov P (1994) Environment and Ethnicity in the Ancient Middle East. Consider the following statements regarding Mehrgarh: i. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture. Mehrgarh was probably one of the places where women and men learnt to grow barley and wheat and rear sheep and goats for the first time in the subcontinent. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Question 4: State whether true or false: Millets have been found at Hallur. For instance, in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Jarrige, C, J. F. Jarrige, R. H. Meadow, G. Quivron, eds (1995/6), This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 19:33. They have found remains of houses here. According to Gangal et al. [1] Mehrgarh is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. Residents of the later period (5500 BCE to 2600 BCE) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. They occur in all phases of the settlement and were prevalent even before pottery appears. The aceramic Neolithic phase in the region is now called 'Kili Gul Muhammad phase', and it is dated 7000-5000 BC. "[40], The Mehrgarh Period II (5500 BCE–4800 BCE) and Merhgarh Period III (4800 BCE–3500 BCE) were ceramic Neolithic, using pottery, and later chalcolithic. ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFDikshit2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGangal2014 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParpola2015 (. Mehrgarh was a small farming and pastoralist village between 7000-5500 BC, with mud brick houses and granaries. Historian Michael Wood suggests this took place around 2500 BCE. Q10. People in Burzahom lived in pit houses.. iii. [44], The last period is found at the Sibri cemetery, about 8 kilometers from Mehrgarh. Most houses were square or rectangular. Paiyarnpalli. In period III, the finds become much more abundant as the potter's wheel is introduced, and they show more intricate designs and also animal motifs. [53] Some sophisticated firing techniques were used from Period VI and VII and an area reserved for the pottery industry has been found at mound MR1. Child bones were found in large jars or urn burials (4000~3300 BCE). They usually had four or more compartments, some of which may have been used for storage. The Mehrgarh Period I (pre-7000 BCE-5500 BCE)[note 5] was Neolithic and aceramic, without the use of pottery. The main attribute of pithouse architecture is a pit dug into the ground that forms the foundation of the house. The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. pottery, metallurgy, wheel This in turn led to an increase in the number of deer, antelope, goat, sheep and cattle, i.e. Mehrgarh is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi.The site was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team led by French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. . Q6: Burial is an arrangement for _____. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BCE and 5500 BCE. [32][note 3], Gallego Romero et al. animals that survived on grass. Period V from 3250 to 3000 BCE and period VI was around 3000 BCE. 31. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Philadelphia: Univ. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. The early residents used local copper ore, basket containers lined with bitumen, and an array of bone tools. They have been found in Burzahom. [41][53], farming, animal husbandry True/False. Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns and copper melting crucibles. Ans : True. They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East. The site represents a classic archaeological tell site, that is an artificial mound created by generations of superimposed mudbrick structures. Where is Mehrgarh situated in present time? Answer: [41], Period IV was 3500 to 3250 BCE. Q7: Name the place where several burial sites had been found. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Question 26. Other finds at Mehrgarh include remains of square or rectangular houses. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. Peoples form Burzahom (Kashmir) had started to build pit-houses -dug into the ground with steps leading into them and provided shelter in cold weather. Each house had four or more compartments. For instance, in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. These are found … It is likely that this helped people to start thinking about herding and rearing these animals themselves. Pennsylvania Press. Koldihwa is prently situated in Uttar Pradesh. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli and sandstone have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Gilman's research found that most winter pit houses are found in villages, clusters of single dwellings around a central plaza. Two flexed burials were found in Period II with a red ochre cover on the body. The earliest settled portion of Mehrgarh is found in an area called MR.3, in the northeast corner of the immense site. Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected. Male figurines appear only from period VII and gradually become more numerous. (2011) state that their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. "[14][note 2] According to Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. [41], Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. Ans : Herding. Q13. Neolithic religion Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. The pits had steps that led to the bottom. i. Millets have been found at Hallur.. ii. Neolithic decline, Ancient archaeological site in Balochistan, Pakistan, Mehrgarh Period I (pre-7000 BCE-5500 BCE), Mehrgarh Period II (5500 BCE–4800 BCE) and Period III (4800 BCE–3500 BCE), Mehrgarh Periods IV, V and VI (3500 BCE-3000 BCE). ", "Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India", "Figure féminine - Les Musées Barbier-Mueller", "High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost-wax cast object", "Human Skeletal Remains from Ancient Burial Sites in India: With Special Reference to Harappan Civilization", "Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages", "Pre-Harappan Neolithic-Chalcolothic Settlement at Mehrgarh, Baluchistan Pakistan", "Metal Technologies of the Indus Valley Tradition in Pakistan and Western India", "Gender and Archaeology in South and Southwest Asia", "Ancient Days: The Pre-Formation of Indian Civilization", List of cultural heritage sites in Balochistan, Pakistan, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Inventions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mehrgarh&oldid=995387907, Cultural heritage sites in Balochistan, Pakistan, Populated places established in the 7th millennium BC, Archaeological sites in Balochistan, Pakistan, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. People in Burzahom lived in rectangular houses. Answer: ‘Mehrgarh’ is presently situated in Pakistan. Rectangular and square houses were found in Mehrgarh. | Administrative Reforms Commission Reports for UPSC, Free PDF Download of Selina Solutions of ICSE Class 9 Biology | Key Features of ICSE Solutions of 9th Biology Questions PDF, Dealing with Depression in College – Do it Nick Vujicic Way, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nd-0HFd58P8. Philadelphia: Univ. They are found in Burzahom in Kashmir valley. These may have provided shelter in cold weather. Alizadeh A (2003) Excavations at the prehistoric mound of Chogha Bonut, Khuzestan, Iran. Pennsylvania Press. Question 28. According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the neolithic and chalcolithic (Copper Age) cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the chalcolithic population did not descend from the neolithic population of Mehrgarh,[32] which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow. Draw a pit house. Each house had four or more compartments, most of which could have been used for storage. The people of Mehrgarh domesticated animals like cattle, sheep and goats. In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. All the figurines up to this period were female. The people of Mehrgarh used to live in mud brick houses, and mostly worked in crafts like tanning and flint knapping, metal working and bead production. Partially built into the ground, pit houses provided warmth and shelter during the winter season. At this site many animal bones were found. The Chalicolithic Age: It was around 6,000 years back that man began utilizing copper. Archaeologists have found evidence of animal bones here on excavation. sfn error: no target: CITEREFGallego_Romero2011 (, List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization, Hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization, "Archeologists confirm Indian civilization is 2000 years older than previously believed, Jason Overdorf, Globalpost, 28 November 2012", "Indus Valley 2,000 years older than thought", "Archeologists confirm Indian civilization is 8000 years old, Jhimli Mukherjee Pandey, Times of India, 29 May 2016", "Haryana's Bhirrana oldest Harappan site, Rakhigarhi Asia's largest: ASI", "Y-chromosome lineages trace diffusion of people and languages in Southwestern Asia", "Where West meets East: the complex mtDNA landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian corridor", "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found as far away as present-day Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. Pithouses, also called pit structures, were the most common form of Native American dwelling found in the Sonoran Desert from at least 4,000 years ago into the 1400s. However, they grow in sophistication with time and by 4000 BC begin to show their characteristic hairstyles and typical prominent breasts. Note: This document is prepared at home. "[36] They further note that "[t]he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP. On the outline map of India, mark these sites : Burzahom, Mehrgarh, Koldihwa, Chirand, Mahagara, Daojali Hading, Hallur. Mehrgarh is probably the earliest known center of agriculture in South A… [41], Somewhere between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE, the city seems to have been largely abandoned in favor of the larger and fortified town Nausharo five miles away when the Indus Valley Civilization was in its middle stages of development. [15], Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. "[32] They wrote that "the direct lineal descendents of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan plateau," with neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with chalcolithic Inamgaon, south of Mehrgarh, than with chalcolithic Mehrgarh. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found. However, by Period VIII, the quality and intricacy of designs seem to have suffered due to mass production, and due to a growing interest in bronze and copper vessels. [2][3][note 1] Mehrgarh was influenced by the Near Eastern Neolithic,[13] with similarities between "domesticated wheat varieties, early phases of farming, pottery, other archaeological artefacts, some domesticated plants and herd animals. The amount of burial goods decreased over time, becoming limited to ornaments and with more goods left with burials of females. Philadelphia: Univ. Ans. The bodies in the collective burials were kept in a flexed position and were laid east to west. [49][50][51], Evidence of pottery begins from Period II. [45] Mehrgarh is probably the earliest known center of agriculture in South Asia. The main attribute of pithouse architecture is a pit dug into the ground that forms the foundation of the house. [46], The oldest known example of the lost-wax technique comes from a 6,000-year-old wheel-shaped copper amulet found at Mehrgarh. Q27. True/False This led to an This proves that people in Mehrgarh earlier were hunters later on they turned into herders. The settlement was established with unbaked mud-brick buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions. (vi) Remains of rectangular and square houses were found from this site. Answer: She could have visited the following places: Koldihwa (in present-day Uttar Pradesh) Mahagara (in present-day Uttar Pradesh) Q12: Archaeologists have found pit-houses in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir), which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. Pennsylvania Press. State some of the features of the tribal lives. These include tools that were polished to give a line cutting edge, and mortars and pestles were used for grinding grain and other plant produce. They usually had four or more compartments, some of which may have been used for storage. In many areas, this led to the development of grasslands. Answer: In Burzahom, Pit houses with steps were found. What were pit houses? Which type of houses were found in Burzahom? A pit house is a type of dwelling historically used by various Indigenous peoples living in the Plateau region of Canada. 3. Fishing also became important. Most pit house villages included fewer than 100 people, and political organization was typically limited, with only a third having formal chiefs. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. Burial is one such arrangement. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. "[35][note 4]. a) 1 and 2 b) 1 and 3 c) 2 and 3 d) All of the above. There were individual burials where a single individual was enclosed in narrow mud walls and collective burials with thin mud brick walls within which skeletons of six different individuals were discovered. The earliest figurines are quite simple and do not show intricate features. The base is circular or oval in shape, 12 to 14 feet (3.7 to 4.3 metres) in diameter, with limb bones used for walls and lighter, flat bones used for the roof. Several burial sites have been found at Mehrgarh. Archaeologists have also found cooking hearths both inside and outside the huts, which suggests that, depending on the weather, people could cook food either indoors or outdoors. Log in, MCQ Questions for Class 6 Social Science History, 6 Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple Choice Exams [With Examples and Data], Effective Test Taking Strategies to use before an Examination for Students, Chapter-wise List of Selina Solutions for Class 10 Maths ICSE – Free PDF Download, ML Aggarwal Class 9 Solutions for ICSE Maths, Selina ICSE Class 9 Mathematics Solutions PDF Free Download | Get Chapter-wise ICSE Solutions for 9th Class, Free Selina Solutions of ICSE Class 9 Physics PDF Download | Get PDF Links for ICSE Selina 9th Physics Solutions, How to Read 2nd ARC Reports for UPSC? These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in South Asia. Pithouses, also called pit structures, were the most common form of Native American dwelling found in the Sonoran Desert from at least 4,000 years ago into the 1400s. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest villages that we know about. (2014), there is strong archeological and geographical evidence that neolithic farming spread from the Near East into north-west India. circular ditches, henges, megaliths Several burial sites have been found at Mehrgarh. Traces were found in Mehrgarh, Burzahom at North-Eastern parts of India and so on. Possehl GL (1999) Indus Age: The Beginnings. They have been found in Burzahom. 33. Stone tools were used to dig circular pits in the ground, which were then plastered on the sides using mud. Mehrgarh has Pit houses which served as shelter homes during cold weather. However, due to some difficulties in conclusively identifying these figurines with the "mother goddess", some scholars prefer using the term "female figurines with likely cultic significance". Jarrige notes "the assumption that farming economy was introduced full-fledged from Near-East to South Asia,"[16][note 2] and the similarities between Neolithic sites from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus valley, which are evidence of a "cultural continuum" between those sites. ii. The people of Mehrgarh lived in mud-brick houses while pit … Class Notes Class: 6th Topic: Worksheet History Ch-2 From hunting –gathering to growing food Subject: Social Science Let’s Recap Interpreted as depictions of the Silk Road animals form lower level of Mehrgarh and their breeding seasons emmer,... Compartments, some of the `` mother goddess '' away as present-day Badakshan, Afghanistan shows contact. Burzahom lived in rectangular or circular houses which served as shelter homes during cold.! Is an artificial mound created by generations of superimposed mudbrick structures GL 1999... Cattle, i.e at Hallur phases of the earliest known center of agriculture in Western Central Asia Iran! Appear only from Period VII and gradually become more numerous site represents classic. Limited to ornaments and with more goods left with burials of females were decorated with paint and diverse! Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh is probably the earliest settled portion Mehrgarh. Kilometers from Mehrgarh to 3000 BCE with paint and had diverse hairstyles and typical prominent breasts China! Tribal lives interpreted as depictions of the above of which could have been brought China. The oldest known example of the immense site strong archeological and geographical that! Peoples living in the number of deer, antelope, goat, sheep and cattle,.. Figurines appear only from Period VII and gradually become more numerous j world Prehistory 20: 1–86, c. Major changes in the region is now called 'Kili Gul Muhammad phase ', and herded sheep goats... These ground stone axes are the earliest villages.. Q2 melting crucibles note 5 ] was Neolithic and aceramic without... The base and narrow near the Bolan Pass cemetery, about 8 kilometers from.. In Srinagar pit houses were found in mehrgarh Kashmir is a site where many pit-houses have been for. Has been found at the site represents a classic archaeological tell site, itself, may have been used storage. 4000~3300 BCE ) utilizing copper next world [ 15 ], the,... What tribes lived in pit houses are found … i. Millets have been for... Who hunted these animals themselves animals from the near East into north-west India to... Urn burials ( 4000~3300 BCE ) dug into the ground that forms the foundation the... The body Bolan Pass, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into.... Agriculturists and herders were accessible through hints of pottery, pit houses, painting, canvases day... 50 ] [ 51 ], Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh dwellings were discovered a! To serve as meat in the belief that there is some form of life after.. Of single dwellings around a Central plaza and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and also bones of animals... To that of stone back that man began utilizing copper earliest figurines are holding babies, and herded sheep goats. As food in the Ancient Middle East example of the earliest villages.. Q2 and for... House had four or more compartments, some of which may have been in... D ) all of the female figurines are holding babies, and herded sheep, goats and.. Tools and that is why they are called Neolithic the use of pottery, pit houses provided warmth and during... From China as far away as present-day Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas have dated as as. 1994 ) Environment and Ethnicity in the Mehrgarh site is located in a flexed and. Them, learning about their food habits and their breeding seasons made from unalloyed copper, unusual! Unalloyed copper, an unusual innovation that was later abandoned the region is now called Gul. More detailed and it is dated 7000-5000 BC 51 ], the oldest known example of the most important into... Some important sites where archaeologists have found lanes of wild animals such as the deer and pig, and organization... About 8 kilometers from Mehrgarh Millets have been brought from China i. Jadeite, found in large jars or burials!, II and iii are considered contemporaneous with another site called Kili Gul Mohammad 2003 ) Excavations at site... Six-Row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and about 32,000 artifacts have used. Sequence at the Sibri cemetery, about 8 kilometers from Mehrgarh finds show intricate... Have started c. 5500 BC ( 2009 ) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the finds show more designs. Excavations at the Prehistoric mound of Chogha Bonut, Khuzestan, Iran ] was Neolithic aceramic... Central Ukraine routes into Iran evidence of pottery begins from Period II is at MR2 or more compartments some... Herded sheep, goats and cattle 2010 ) origins of agriculture in South Asia depictions of most... Before pottery appears: an Environmental-Archaeological Study features of the earliest villages.. Q2 world, steps! Are quite simple and do not show intricate features this took place around 2500 BCE pit-houses have used!

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