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Apollo Heart Institute



  • M-mode echocardiogram. This, the simplest type of echocardiogram, produces an image that is similar to a tracing rather than an actual picture of heart structures. M-mode echo is useful for measuring heart structures, such as the heart's pumping chambers, the size of the heart itself, and the thickness of the heart walls.
  • Doppler echocardiogram. This Doppler technique is used to measure and assess the flow of blood through the heart's chambers and valves. The amount of blood pumped out with each beat is a sign of how well the heart is working. Also, Doppler can detect abnormal blood flow within the heart, which can mean there is a problem with one or more of the heart's four valves or with the heart's walls.
  • Color Doppler. Color Doppler is an enhanced form of a Doppler echocardiogram. With color Doppler, different colors are used to show the direction of blood flow.
  • 2-D (two-dimensional) echocardiogram. This technique is used to see the actual structures and motion of the heart structures. A 2-D echo view looks cone-shaped on the monitor, and the real-time motion of the heart's structures can be seen.
  • 3-D (three-dimensional) echocardiogram. 3-D echo technique captures 3-D views of the heart structures with greater depth than 2-D echo. The live or "real time" images allow for a more accurate assessment of heart function by using measurements taken while the heart is beating. 3-D echo shows enhanced views of the heart's anatomy and can be used to determine best treatment plan.

Major Indications:

This enables detailed anatomical assessment of Cardiac pathology, particularly

  • Valvular defects,
  • Congestive heart failure,
  • Congenital heart disease,
  • Aneurysm,
  • Cardiomyopathies.
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